There’s a lot going on in Belgium about giant shopping malls on the edge of big cities (Uplace being the most famous). Astonishing figures on this matter were published by De Standaard (weekend edition, 16th of May 2015). Out of all shoppers 10,2% spend 0 EUR, 66,9% uses a car to get there.
If you read the graph in different way… 77,60% of all visitors spend less then then 125 EUR, while 66,9% need 10% of there shopping budget just to get there*.
Just cope with the logistic problem and relocate shops in city centers seems a reasonable idea. It gives ex-car using shoppers an extra budget to support the local shop-owner!
* As always 😉 I take my own case as the average. The nearest by shopping mall for me is a 15 km one way ride. The estimated cost to get there by my humble car is approximately 11 EUR.